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Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting tissues surrounding the teeth.

Periodontal disease is generally due to bacteria in the mouth infecting the tissue around the teeth. Risk factors include smoking, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, family history, and certain medications. Diagnosis is by inspecting the gum tissue around the teeth both visually and with a probe and x-rays to detect the bone loss around the teeth.

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Signs and symptoms of periodontal disease:
  • Redness or bleeding gums.
  • Gum swelling that recurs.
  • Bleeding from gums while brushing teeth
  • Halitosis or Bad breath
  • Gingival recession
  • Deep pocketing between the teeth and the gums
  • Loose teeth in the later stages.
Periodontal diseases include:
  • Gingivitis
  • Chronic periodontitis
  • Aggressive periodontitis
  • Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease.
  • Necroting ulcerative gingivitis periodontitis.
  • Abscesses of the periodontium
  • Combined periodontitic-endodontic lesions.